pattern recognition and identification experiments

Pattern recognition and the identification of objects with patterns

A general perceptual task called pattern recognition is what we use in identifying common objects in our environments. In recognizing a pattern we store and associate it to category of previous experiences. In a bottom-up fashion, pattern recognition theories assume not only that processes are driven by sensory stimulation, but also that they are dependent on acquired consciousness and current expectancy, in a top-down implied manner (1.)

Klatzky and Lederman have pushed the limits in investigating the use of spacial edges and material for identifying objects (2.) They used many subjects and many tests. However haptic object identification can not be fully dependent on spatial layouts of edges. From Klatzky and Lederman’s further experiments they have shown that if two properties of an object can be exerted simultaneously during tactile exploration, then the object classification is sped up (3.)

The most examined modality in the studies of pattern recognition have so far been in the modalities of vision, then followed by speech recognition. In view of this, in contrast to other modalities, relatively little work has been dedicated to the study of how we identify familiar patterns through tactile feeling (4). It might be assumed to focus on vision modalities as it the the typical way in which we analyze objects in our environments; however, tactile pattern recognition has not been highlighted in such a manner and thus warrants consideration as we often identify objects by touch. When we run our fingers down the wall in a dark room in search for the light switch, we are able to recognize the switch to turn on the lights. Thus recognizing common objects by touch is not something that we can do, but something that we already do with our everyday objects in our environments.

This is a 6in by 6in 3D printed model. It is a 3D representation of a pattern I created in 2D.

This is the pattern I brought into Rhino (3D software) to create the above 3D printed model. It is interesting to also note the wireframe image of the 3D rendering. The outlines of the object (waves) have a feeling of rhythm, pattern and possible data flow.

These are more patterns I made, and their 3D renderings.
In order of (1) pattern (2) wireframe and (3) 3D rendering

These are three 12in x 12in 1/8th laser cut/raster plexi pieces. Each piece has 3 sections of patterns. One row is the initial pattern. The second row is is a hybrid of the initial pattern. The third row has an anomaly. This was an experiment to see if we could feel the pattern, feel the change in pattern, and also to see if we are able to feel the anomaly.

1,2,3. Lederman, S.J., and R.L. Klatzky. Action For Perception: A Manual Exploratory Movements for Haptically Processing Objects and Their Features. New York: Academic, 1996. Print.
4. Gibson, J.J.: The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems. Houghton Mifflin, Boston (1966). Print

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Below are the initial investigations I did prior to the above executed experiments on touch. I looked into Becker maps, city grids, moiré patterns, and turing patterns. The images were taken from search engine searches.

“Since our planets birth, the grid work around the earth has consisted of a sacred geometry matrix of one of the five Platonic solids. Plato believed that the earth’s basic structure was in the process of evolving from simple geometric shapes into more complex ones. In order of complexity the five patterns theorized by Plato to be the building blocks of crystalline matrix, are the tetrahedron (4 faces), hexahedron (6 faces), octahedron (8 faces), dodecahedron (12 faces) and icosahedron (20 faces). Plato further theorized that the earth was evolving into an icosahedron grid.

Planetary Energetic Grid Theory operates through geometric patterns called Sacred Geometry. Grids meet at various intersecting points forming a grid or matrix. This is equivalent to the acupressure points on our bodies. These grid points can be found at some of the strongest power places on the planet.

Plato recognized grids and their patterns, devising a theory that the Earth’s basic structure evolved from a simple geometric shapes to more complex ones. These shapes became known as platonic solids: cube (4), tetrahedron (3), octahedron (8), dodecahedron (12), icosahedron(20). In Timeaus, Plato associated each shape with one of the elements, earth, fire, air, ether, and water. The Earth’s energy grids, from the beginnings of its evolutionary course, has evolved through each of these shapes to what it is today. Each shape, superimposed, one upon the other to create a kind of all encompassing energy field that is the very basis of Earth holding it all together.

Bill Becker and Bethe Hagens discussed the code of the Platonic Solids’ positions on Earth, ascribing this discovery to the work of Ivan P. Sanderson, who was the first to make a case for the structure of the icosahedron at work in the Earth. He did this by locating what he referred to as Vile Vortices refer to a claim that there are twelve geometrically distributed geographic areas that are alleged to have the same mysterious qualities popularly associated with the Bermuda Triangle, the Devil’s Sea near Japan, and the South Atlantic Anomaly.”
http://www.local-legends.net/home/RARE-PLACES.php

“A Canadian city called Mississauga is “trying to create a more vibrant and pedestrian-friendly downtown”. The above image compares a really small slice of major cities around the world. I like the patterns and they no doubt speak to the heart of the city, but they’re also very misleading too. It’s a mistake to read too much into planning like this. My only living experience within the context of the above cities is New York. Most of Manhattan is fairly navigable once you get the hang of the streets and avenues. Sure it was planned to some degree but it doesn’t speak to the people that actually live there. There’s a certain “drive” for lack of a better cliché that really makes people who they are in New York. I don’t have a ton of friends, but the people that I like to call them that make the city much more interesting once the awe of the buildings slowly fades away. Urban planning can’t make those relationships. I suppose that speaks to things being over designed in general too. Urban density vs urban sprawl also suggest different living patterns too. Both have their issues but I don’t think one can replicate the other with much success.”
http://designnotes.info/?p=1242

“Physical objects used to represent mathematical abstractions; or, more frequently, mathematical constructions (formulae, functions, graphs, etc.) used to express physical phenomena. Such models occur throughout applied mathematics and physics, their greatest value being heuristic; i.e., the model may suggest the existence of unsuspected properties in the phenomenon.”
http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/M/mathematical_models.html

“A moiré is a convergence of different patterns. When two patterns combine they create a pattern of their own that does not exist in either of the originals. This interference between two patterns is called a Moiré pattern.  This can happen, for example, when scanning large areas of what seems to be a single color. Sometimes what we perceive as a block of color, is actually a great many fine dots of ink. When printed, small random variations in value can occur due to the imperfections of print technology. The grid pattern of the scanning process combined with these almost-invisible random ink patterns can produce unexpected results. This is often in the form of a mysterious “banding” or off-color   “stains”. Scanning an image slightly off “square” can increase the likelihood of this happening – the original printed “grid” of dots in the original is out of line with the scanning grid. The whole revolves then around a value and practice aligned with a sense of what works in our universe.” 
http://facweb.cs.depaul.edu/sgrais/moir%C3%A9_patterns.htm

“Turing patterns are the more common name for “reaction-diffusion patterns” which are found in abundance throughout the natural world. They are formed by a simple system of cell-cell communication; cells secrete signals that mean nearby cells will become the same as them, whereas far away cells will differentiate. In terms of colour this leads to dots and stripes patterns, which are found in almost all patterning systems in nature. The basic Turing mechanism is notorious for its sensitivity; for example its predictions of emergent structures are critically dependent on the fine details of fluctuations in initial conditions. This has previously led to suggestions that Turing patterns would not be realized in development (Bard and Lauder, 1974; Bunow et al.,1980). However, when coupled with  growth, robust pattern formation can occur without a sensitivity to the initial conditions, via a cascade of instabilities with bifurcations driven by the evolution of the domain. Furthermore, the standard paradigm, of an activator and an inhibitor, is no longer required for growth driven instabilities.”
http://labrat.fieldofscience.com/2010/08/art-from-turing-patterns.html

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